Maharana Pratap - Warrior of Haldighati

Maharana Pratap - Warrior of Haldighati, it tells about the ruler of Mewar Maharana Pratap who was the brave warrior of the battle of Haldighati.

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There have been many kings in India, but there have been some kings whose name fills the heart with reverence. One such king's name is Maharana Pratap.

On hearing the name of Maharana Pratap, the image of such a brave warrior emerges in the mind, who accepted to live a normal life with common citizens in the mountains and forests instead of the royal life of slavery for his freedom.

On hearing the name of Maharana Pratap, that self-respecting king comes to mind, whose whole life was spent in continuous struggle with the Mughal army instead of the happiness and glory of the palaces.

On hearing the name of Maharana Pratap, he is seen as a helpless father, whose son Kunwar Amar Singh ate the bread made of grass and he could not do anything.

You must be aware that many times Maharana Pratap's family had to survive by eating grass bread in the forest. The Maharana whose family had to lead a permanent royal life had to wander through the forests.

In these circumstances, even Maharana Pratap's mind must have been very sad, but don't know what was the power that never let him go astray from his goal i.e. the freedom of Mewar.

In spite of a million difficulties and troubles, he was so devoted to the independence of Mewar that he did not want to lose it at any cost.

As soon as the name of Maharana Pratap comes to the fore, the first thing that comes to mind is the sacred soil like turmeric of Haldighati, which people still apply on their forehead as a symbol of bravery.

Today we will talk about Veer Shiromani Mahayodha Maharana Pratap who spent his whole life for his self-respect and freedom, so let's start.

Birth and childhood of Maharana Pratap

Maharana Pratap was born on Jyestha Shukla Tritiya, Vikram Samvat 1597 i.e. 9 May 1540 AD in the palace of Jhali Rani in the fort of Kumbhalgarh.

You can still see the birthplace of Maharana Pratap in the fort of Kumbhalgarh. This birthplace is in the palace of Jhali Rani, located near the Badal Mahal.

Kunwar Pratap was the eldest son of Maharana Udai Singh. His mother's name was Jaywanta Bai (Jeevant Kanwar). Jaywanta Bai was the daughter of Akheraj Songara.

Maharana Pratap's childhood was spent in Bhil community, since Bhils call their children as Kika, hence Maharana Pratap was also called as Kika in his childhood.

Along with policy and religious subjects, they were taught horse riding, weapons, military operations, war formation, etc.

Maharana Pratap's childhood was spent in the fort of Kumbhalgarh as well as in the fort of Chittor and Gogunda. In his youth, Kunwar Pratap started participating in military campaigns.

In his youth, Kunwar Pratap had shown his military strategy and war skills by taking over Vagad and Godwad region.

You must be aware that in ancient royal families, the successor of any king was his eldest son.

Maharana Udai Singh overturned this practice and came under the influence of his most favorite queen Dhirbai Bhatiyani and declared Kunwar Jagmal as his successor in place of Kunwar Pratap.

After this incident, Maharana Pratap left the fort of Chittor and started living in the foothills. Due to living in the foothills, he established close contact with the people of Mewar.

The coronation of Maharana Pratap

When Mughal Emperor Akbar took over Chittor in 1568 AD, Maharana Udai Singh left Chittor with his family and started living in Gogunda.

The ancient remains of the residence of Maharana Udai Singh are still visible at the foothills of Dholia mountain in Gogunda.

Vikram Samvat 1629 (28 February 1572) Maharana Udai Singh died on the full moon day of Phalgun Shukla Paksha.

According to the tradition of the Mewar royal family, the eldest son could not participate in the cremation, but Kunwar Pratap broke this practice and attended the funeral of Maharana Udai Singh.

This was an opportunity for Kunwar Jagmal because Maharana Pratap was not in the palace. Second Kunwar Jagmal was already declared as the successor of Mewar so Kunwar Jagmal took advantage of this opportunity and sat on the throne.

Later, when all the feudatories of Mewar came to know about this through Raja Ram Singh Tanwar  of Gwaliorand Songara Man Singh, they objected to it.

All the Samantas discussed among themselves and accepted Kunwar Pratap, the eldest son of Maharana Uday Singh as Maharana, according to the prevalent practice.

Rawat Krishnadas of Salumber and Rawat Sanga of Deogarh made Kunwar Pratap sit on the Mahadev Bawdi of Gogunda and crowned him with the consent of all the chieftains. Thus, on 28 February 1572 AD, Maharana Pratap became the ruler of Mewar in Gogunda.

The Mahadev Bawdi is still present in Gogunda where the coronation of Maharana Pratap took place. The temple of Lord Shankar is also present next to this stepwell where Maharana Pratap used to worship.

Some time after the coronation in Gogunda, the coronation ceremony of Maharana Pratap was celebrated in Kumbhalgarh according to the state tradition. Thus Maharana Pratap was crowned twice.

After Maharana Pratap took over the power of Mewar, both Kumbhalgarh and Gogunda became the main centers of the Mewar kingdom.

Mewar at the time of Maharana Pratap

While living in Chittor, Maharana Udai Singh started building the second capital of Mewar named Udaipur in the Girwa hills.

Maharana Udai Singh had built Moti Mahal on Moti Magri in Udaipur, whose ruins are still present today. Along with this, the initial construction of City Palace was also done.

When Akbar got control over entire Chittor in the Mughal invasion of 1568 AD, Maharana Udai Singh came to Gogunda with his family.

After taking control of Chittor, Akbar started making efforts to take control of entire Mewar.
Thus Maharana Pratap inherited a state with limited resources, limited land and limited man power.

According to the situation of that time, Maharana Pratap had to choose between Akbar's submission and his independence. Pratap chose the path of struggle to get independence.

In this war of independence, the capitals of Mewar changed several times, but due to his efficient administration and military operations, Maharana Pratap did not allow the state's governance and military system to be affected at all.

Maharana Pratap had built many secret hideouts in the forests between the mountains at places like Gogunda, Jawar, Kamalnath etc. One of these secret places was the most trusted place of Maharana Pratap.

This place was Myra's cave. Myra's cave was the armory of Maharana Pratap, in which Maharana Pratap used to keep the weapons of his army.

This cave is still present in the dense forest between the mountains at a distance of a few kilometers from Gogunda. Along with Myra's cave, Jawar Mines and Kamalnath Mahadev also had their armory in the mountains.

Weapons of Maharana Pratap

It is believed that Maharana Pratap used to fight in the war by lifting more than 200 kg. The weight of his spear was 81 kg, the weight of the armor was 72 kg. Apart from spear and armour, they also had two swords, shield, dagger etc.

All these weapons of Maharana Pratap are still present in the City Palace Museum of Udaipur. According to the City Palace Museum, the total weight of Maharana Pratap's spear, swords and other weapons including armour, is 35 kg.

According to this, the weight of Maharana Pratap's spear was about 3 kg, the weight of one of the two swords was about 2.25 kg and the other was 2 kg, the weight of the armor was about 16.25 kg, the weight of the shield was about 2.5 kg.

Battle of Haldighati

Mughal emperor Akbar wanted to bring Maharana Pratap under his control without fighting, so Akbar sent four ambassadors in turn from 1572 AD to 1573 AD i.e. for one year to convince Pratap.

In 1573 AD, King Man Singh of Amer also came to convince Maharana Pratap by becoming Akbar's ambassador.

Both of them met on the sail of Udai Sagar Lake in Udaipur, in which Maharana Pratap refused Mansingh to accept Akbar's submission.

The failure of all these negotiations resulted in the Battle of Haldighati. This war has a special place in the history of India because this war completely failed the Mewar policy of the Mughals.

The Battle of Haldighati took place on 18 June 1576 AD between the Mewari army led by Maharana Pratap and the Mughal army led by Mansingh at a place called Haldighati in Khamnore village.

Thousands of soldiers on both sides were killed in this war. The battle ground was filled with blood, due to which the battle ground of Haldighati is known as Rakta Talai.

Broadly speaking, neither Akbar won nor Maharana Pratap lost in this war. Akbar did not benefit from the war because Maharana Pratap and Mewar did not come under his control even after the war.

Akbar was so angry with the result of the war that when Mansingh and Asaf Khan reached Akbar after the war, Akbar got angry and closed their Dyodhi, meaning Akbar stopped meeting them.

Mewar after the Battle of Haldighati

After the Battle of Haldighati, Maharana Pratap made Kumbhalgarh his base and continued fighting with the Mughal army in a guerilla manner.

Between 1576 and 1578 AD, the Mughal army attacked Mewar several times in search of Maharana Pratap. The Mughals made their thanas at many places in Mewar.

In 1578 AD, the Mughal general Shahbaz Khan captured the fort of Kumbhalgarh. Along with Kumbhalgarh, Javar, Vagad, Chhappan etc. were also occupied by the Mughals.

Maharana Pratap continued to attack the Mughal Thanas with his guerilla warfare system by making a new war strategy. The Mughal army got upset with this new strategy of Maharana Pratap.

Battle of Diver

In 1582 AD, on the day of Vijayadashami, Maharana Pratap attacked the royal station of Diver village, located about 40 kilometers north east of Kumbhalgarh. Sultan Khan was the head of this Mughal Thana of Diver.

In this war, Kunwar Amar Singh, son of Maharana Pratap, killed Sultan Khan with a spear. In this battle, Maharana Pratap tore Bahlol Khan along with his horse with a single blow of the sword.

After this incident, it became a saying in Mewar that in Mewar, the rider along with the horse is killed in a single attack.

Maharana Pratap won the battle of Diver. Colonel Tod has called this war the marathon of Mewar. After this war, Maharana Pratap gradually started taking control of entire Mewar.

After this war, Akbar also became indifferent towards Mewar and the attacks of the Mughal army on Mewar almost stopped.

After the war of Diver, Maharana Pratap re-captured Kumbhalgarh, Jawar etc. by 1585 AD. At the same time, he made Chavand his capital by taking control of the hilly area of Chappan.

Last 12 years of Maharana Pratap in Chawand

Maharana Pratap spent the last 12 years of his life peacefully here after making Chavand his capital in 1585 AD. Literature and art flourished during this peaceful period.

The ruins of Maharana Pratap's fort and palace are still present on the banks of the Gargal river in Chavand.

The temple of Chamunda Mata is also present near the ruins of the fort where Maharana Pratap used to worship the goddess regularly.

Cenotaph of Maharana Pratap (Samadhi Sthal)

Maharana Pratap died in Chavand on Magh Shukla Ekadashi Vikram Samvat 1653 (19 January 1597).

Maharana Pratap was cremated in the middle of Kejad lake at the confluence of three rivers in Bandoli village, about two kilometers from Chavand.

Madho Kanwar and Ran Kanwar committed sati along with Maharana Pratap. Maharana Amar Singh got an 8-pillar cenotaph constructed at the cremation site in the middle of the Kejad lake.

This cenotaph remains the center of reverence of the people even today as a memorial of Maharana Pratap. Presently it is known as Pratap Sagar Triveni Sangam.

Images of Maharana Pratap - Warrior of Haldighati

Maharana Pratap 1

Maharana Pratap 2

Maharana Pratap 3

Maharana Pratap 4

Maharana Pratap 5


Ramesh Sharma {M Pharm, MSc (Computer Science), PGDCA, MA (History), CHMS}

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