Story of Prithviraj Chauhan - Warrior fought with Muhammad Ghori

Story of Prithviraj Chauhan - Warrior fought with Muhammad Ghori, it tells about the life history of Prithviraj Chauhan who fought battle of Tarain.

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Prithviraj Chauhan was born in 1166 CE (Century). After the death of his father Someshwardev, Prithviraj became the successor of the Chauhan Dynasty.

And he became ruler at a very young age of 11 Years.His mother Karpuradevi was a skilled politician. He was been guided by his mother. And because of this reason he got control upon the administration of the kingdom very easily.

With the assistance of Prime Minister Kadambavasa and Commander Bhuvanaikamalla. After taking guardianship from his mother for around a year, he handled the actual control of the kingdom by himself when he was of 12 years in 1178 CE.

As he became the ruler, he changed a lot of things, he appointed his reliable and trustworthy officers on the higher posts and implement his policy of victory.

His policy of victory has two major points, and they were:
1. Elimination of the neighbouring kingdoms.
2. Confronting or defeating the foreign enemies.

The Chauhan dynasty has a massive area to rule and during the invasion made by Muhammad Ghori, Delhi and Ajmer was ruled by Prithviraj Chauhan and was renowned by the name of “Rai Pithora”.

Conquests of Prithviraj Chauhan


Prithviraj was an adolescent when he became the ruler of the Chauhan Dynasty. Because of this his uncle Apargangya revolted against him.

And he tried to became the ruler according to him he was the next successor of the throne and thinks that he was capable of being a ruler.

Prithviraj defeated his uncle afterwards but the opposing groups who were in favour of his uncle were not settle down.

After Apargangya, his younger brother took his place and blew the call for revolt and occupied Gurugram (Gurgaon).

After getting the information that Gurugram (Gurgaon) was occupies by the revolutionaries, Prithviraj sent his army there and as soon as the news of the Prithviraj’s army came to Nagarjuna, he fled away.

But after all this, Nagarjuna’s commander tried to save Gurugram (Gurgaon) for a short period of time, but he became successful and the army of Prithviraj reoccupied Gurugram (Gurgaon).

All the revolutionaries were put to death and their heads were hanged on the wall of the city, so that no one will never dare to do that thing again.

At the time period of 1182 CE Prithviraj defeated a very terrifying and dangerous tribe named Bhandanak, that started to reside around Gurugram (Gurgaon) and Hissar and occupied the northern frontiers of his kingdom.

Jinpati Suri the author of Synchronous had written about the suppression of the Bhandanaks by the hands of Prithviraj.

After his starting success, he decided to follow Digvijaya policy which means conquest of all the regions just like the ancient Indian rulers.

After the end of Bhandanaks, his boundaries were started to attach with Mahoba kingdom of the Chandels.

For taking revenge of assassination of some of his soldiers, he attacked upon Mahoba state in 1182 CE.

In this battle two commanders Alha and Udal of Chandel ruler Paramardi Deva were killed while fighting.

Privthviraj stand victorious in that battle and appointed Panjun Rai as the chief of Mahoba and returned back to his kingdom.

According to Prithviraj Raso, Prithviraj Chauhan made Chalukya ruler Bhimdev II of Gujarat angry by marrying the princess of Abu Ichchhini, because Bhimdev also wanted to marry her. But this was not the main reason.

According to historians the main reason of the struggle between both the rulers was that the boundaries of the kingdoms of both of them were attached and both were ambitious.

After many quarrels between both the rulers a treaty of alliance was made because of the mediation of Jagdev Pratihara, but the enmity was not dead inside both of them.

At the same time Jiachand was the ruler of Gahadawala state of Kannauj, which is situated to the end of Prithviraj’s domain.

Because of the issue of control upon Delhi, an immense felling of enmity started among both the rulers. To implement his Digvijay policy Prithviraj wished to merge Kannauj into his kingdom.

But on the other hand, Jaichand was making victorious plans just like Prithviraj Chauhan. After Prithviraj forcefully kidnapped the daughter of Jaichand, Samyogita.

And he forcefully marry her, this incident made Jaichand more angry and he started to find an opportunity to take revenge from Prithviraj.

Then to take revenge, Jaichand invited Muhammad Ghori the ruler of Ghazni to attack upon Prithviraj Chauhan and thus the Turkish invasion started in India

According to ancient historical collections, when Jaichand got the news of Prithviraj’s defeat by Muhammad Ghori, he celebrated this event all across his capital.

Prithviraj Chauhan and Muhammad Ghori


Just after becoming the Governor of Ghazni, Muhammad Ghori invaded upon Multan in 1175 CE (Century) and occupied it.

After occupying Multan, he fought battles with Gujarat, Sialkot and Lahore and stood victorious in all those battles.

According to the Rajasthani sources, when Ghori came to India. He fought several battles with Prithviraj but got defeated each time.

In Prithviraj Raso it is stated that Prithviraj Chauhan defeated Muhammad Ghori twenty-one times.But on the other hand, in Hammir Mahakavya it is written that Ghori got defeated by Prithviraj only seven times.

So, no one knows the truth. In the time period of 1191 CE, two decisive battles took place between both the rulers.

Muhammad Ghori proceeded from Lahore with his army and reached up to Tarain while occupying a place named Tabarhind.

There in Tarain, a fierce battle took place between Muhammad Gori and Prithviraj Chauhan. During the war, a feudal lord Govindraj of Prithviraj injured Muhammad Ghori by a stroke of his harpoon.

After being injured, Muhammad fled away from the battlefield to Ghazni along with his army. After Muhammad left the battlefield, Prithviraj reoccupied Tabarhind.

And he caught and imprisoned Qasi Jiauddin, who later released and let go on the exchange of a huge amount of money. One year passed and Muhammad Ghori reappeared on the battlefield in Tarain along with his army.

But this time, Muhammad was there for a reconciliation talk and actually it was a trap for Prithviraj in which he got stuck.

Prithviraj accepted the reconciliation talk. And the reconciliation talk continued for a long time between them.


And because of this Chauhan’s army became careless and got engaged in material pleasure. Taking advantage of this condition, Muhammad Ghori attacked upon Prithviraj suddenly one night.

The Rajput army was not ready for the attack and could not bear such a violent and sudden attack. So, they got defeated.

After defeating Prithviraj, Muhammad took Prithviraj with him and imprisoned near Sirsa at a place called Saraswati.

In Prithviraj Raso it is written that Ghori took Prithviraj to Ghazni, where he made Prithviraj blind.

And there at the time of exhibiting the Shabd Bedhi arrow, Prithviraj shot Ghori by an arrow only by listening to his voice, Ghori died at that time afterward Prithviraj committed suicide.

Reasons for the defeat of Prithviraj Chauhan


Prithviraj was a great conqueror, ruler and also a great warrior, but if the thing comes to foresightedness and diplomacy he lacked in these topics.

He did not establish any friendly relationships with his neighbouring kingdoms. Instead of this he made them his enemy and waged several wars with them.

Because of this reason he did not get any help from his neighbouring during the invasion made by Muhammad Ghori into his empire.

Another mistake done by Prithviraj was that, when Muhammad Ghori invaded in Gujarat in 1178 CE, he (Prithviraj) had not provided any type of help to Gujarat, so this thing made them angry with him.

Along with these mistakes another huge and very dangerous mistake done by Prithviraj was that he had not attacked the Turkish army when they were trying to flee away from the battlefield after being defeated by Prithviraj in the First battle of Tarain.

If he had violently attacked upon the army of Muhammad Ghori, they will get terrified and they would never get such a dare to attack upon Prithviraj again.

And after his marriage with Samyogita, he started to neglect all the administrative obligations and other important issues. And he begins to live a luxurious life.

Evaluation of Prithviraj Chauhan


Prithviraj was one of the bravest and the strongest rulers of Rajasthan. He was a fearless, brave and gallant ruler.

Just after becoming the ruler, he wages several battles with many rulers one after another that proves that he was an efficient soldier and commander.

After achieving victory in several battles, he gained the title of “Dalpangul”, which means conqueror of the world.

He had never lost any battle in his lifetime before the battle of Tarain and the reason for the lost of Prithviraj in this battle was the treason and deception of Muhammad Ghori.

He was a conqueror and also was a great scholar too. Various major scholars were present in his court, among them Vidyapati Gaud, Vageshwar, Janardhan, Jayanak, Vishwarup, Ashadhare, etc. were the major ones.

Chandbardai was his royal poet and also was the writer of “Prithviraj Raso”. Prithviraj Raso was the first epic written in Hindi literature, so this thing made it more special.

Writer

Ramesh Sharma {M Pharm, MSc (Computer Science), PGDCA, MA (History), CHMS}

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