Story of Maharana Sanga - Warrior had 80 wounds on Body

Story of Maharana Sanga - Warrior had 80 wounds on Body, it tells about the life history of Maharana Sanga of mewar who fought with battle of Khanwa.

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Maharana Sanga was born on 12th April, 1482 CE in Chittorgarh. His father’s name was Rana Raimal.

When Sangram Singh (Maharana Sanga) was about 27 years, his father died and he became the new ruler of Mewar in the year 1509 CE.

And it is said that he was the most magnificent and splendid warrior among all the Maharanas of Mewar. Maharana Sanga had to face various difficulties to become the ruler of Mewar.

When his father, Rana Raimal was alive, internal struggle started among his sons for becoming the ruler of Mewar and get all the powers.

It is said that once, because of a quarrel, Sangram Singh, Jaimal and Kunwar Prithviraj got their birth documents to show them to an astrologer.

After going through all the birth documents, the astrologer said that, the stars of Jaimal and Prithviraj are favourable.

But the ruling star of Sangram Singh was strongly in his favour and Sangram will become the ruler of Mewar. Hearing this, both the brothers of Sangram got angered and both of them rushed upon him.

And during this fight, Prithviraj wounded Sanga and as the result of that an eye of Sanga got damaged and he became blind by an eye.

Sarangdev, the uncle of Maharana Raimal mediated the fight and silenced them and said that they might not give any weightage to the comments of an astrologer.

And should not fight with each other. But the anger and opposition of the princes got increased and got stronger day by day.

After that, being frightened from his brothers, Sangram Singh was spending his days in isolation with Karamchand Panwaar of Srinagar (Ajmer). At that time his father, Raimal called him up and made him his successor.

Sanga’s struggle with the Sultan of Gujarat

During the reign of Maharana Sanga, the main reason for the struggle between Gujarat and Mewar was the issue of Idar.

Rao Bhan, the ruler of Idar had two sons Suryamal and Bheem. After the death of Rao Bhan, Suryamal ascended the throne and became the ruler of Idar.

After 18 months of becoming the ruler, Suryamal also died. And then, his son Raimal ascended the throne of Idar.

At that time, Raimal was just an adolescent and his uncle, Bheem took advantage of this and occupied the rule of Idar.

Raimal ran away from there and took refuge in Mewar, and in Mewar, Maharana Sanga engaged his daughter with Raimal.

In the year 1515 CE, Raimal defeated his uncle Bheem with the help of Maharana Sanga and reoccupied Idar.

As Raimal was made the ruler of Idar removing Bheem, the Sultan of Gujarat, Muzaffar, became very angry and unhappy because Bheem had occupied Idar after his assent.

Angered Sultan Muzaffar ordered the Jaghirdar of Ahmednagar, Nizam ul Mulk to defeat Raimal and throne Bheem again in Idar.

Nizam ul Mulk proceeded towards Idar and as he surrounded Idar, Raimal went away to the hills from Idar.

Nizam ul Mulk followed Raimal from Idar to the hills and at the hills, Raimal defeated Nizam ul Mulk.

As the Sultan got this information that Nizam ul Mulk unnecessary followed Raimal to the hills, the Sultan got unhappy by Nizam ul Mulk and called him back.

After all this, the Sultan appointed Muvarji ul Mulk as the Hakim of Idar. One day, the Hakim of Idar, Muvarji ul Mulk compared Rana Sanga with a dog in front of Bhaat.

As soon as Rana got the information regarding this, he along with Raja Udai Singh of Wagad proceeded towards Idar. They occupied Idar and again throne Raimal as the ruler of Idar.

To take the revenge for what happened in Idar, Sultan Muzaffar sent two separate armies under the leadership of Malik Ayaz and Kiva ul Mulk to invade upon Mewar in the year 1520 CE.

The Sultan of Gujarat also joined this army, but due to lack of coordination among the Muslim officers, Malik Ayaz was unable to proceed ahead and he was forced to move back after joining an alliance.

Sanga’s struggle with the Sultan of Delhi

During the reign of Sikandar Lodi in Delhi, Maharana Sanga had started to occupy the regions of Delhi, but because of the weakness of his army, he could not defeat the Maharana’s army.

Ibrahim Lodi, the successor of Sikandar Lodi invaded upon Mewar in the year 1517 CE. A fierce battle took place between the armies of both the rulers at a place which is called Khatoli (Kota).

And in that battle Maharana Sanga stood victorious and the Sultan became successful in fleeing away from the battlefield after getting defeated but one of his princes was imprisoned.

In that battle, Maharana became injured very badly, as his left hand was cut off and a blow of an arrow injured his knee and because of that he became lame forever.

Ibrahim Lodi wanted to avenge his defeat by Maharana Sanga. So, he again sent a huge army to defeat Sanga under the leadership of Miya Makhan in 1518 CE. But this time also Maharana Sanga stood victorious.

Mewar’s relationship with Malwa

Medini Rai, a Hindu feudal lord became successful in enthroning the dethroned Malwa’s Sultan Mahmud Khilji II. And because of this, Sultan appointed him as the minister.

The Muslim Emirs of Mahmud Khilji II were very unhappy by sawing the increasing power of Medini Rai and wanted to eliminate him. So, they started to make the Sultan against him by inciting him.

Medini Rai ran away from Malwa and reached to the heaven of Maharana Sanga, where he was given the Jagirs of Gagron and Chanderi.

In the year 1519 CE, Mahmud proceeded to invade Medini Rai and as soon as Maharana Sanga got this news he also gets there with a huge army.

A fierce battle took place between both the armies and the Sultan became unsuccessful in this struggle.

Sultan’s son got killed in this battle and he himself also got injured. Maharana Sanga took injured Mahmud with him to Chittor and imprisoned him for three months.

One day, Sanga presented a bouquet to the imprisoned Sultan, and on this the Sultan said that, “There were two ways of giving something. Either he held his hand up and give it to his subordinate or he held his hand down and gave it to his elder, he was his prisoner, therefore there was no question of a gift, and it did not suit him to spread out his hands like beggars for a petty things such as bouquet.”

On this, Maharana became very happy and with the bouquet Maharana granted half region of Malwa to Mahmud.

Battle between Rana Sanga and Babur

Babur was the first Mughal emperor to invade upon India. Babur founded the Mughal empire in India, after defeating Ibrahim Lodi in the Battle of Panipat in 1526 CE.

And this Mughal Empire ruled upon India for around 300 years. Babur was born at a place called Fergana in 1483 CE. His father’s name was Umar Sheikh Mirza and Qutlugh Nigar Khanum was his mother.

Umar Sheikh Mirza was died in the year 1494 CE and after his death, Babur became the ruler of his paternal kingdom of Fergana at an early age of 11.

Maharana Sanga in Battle of Khanwa

But because of some unfavourable circumstances and issues, his rule could not sustain there. And finally, to achieve and gain permanent rule, Babur decided to invade and conquer India.

Babur invaded upon India and defeated Ibrahim Lodi in the Battle of Panipat, which held in the year 1526 CE.

At the time of his invasion, Maharana Sanga, who is famous by the name of Maharana Sangram Singh I, was the most powerful ruler of India and soon after the invasion of Babur, a struggle started between both Sanga and Babur.

Struggle between Rana Sanga and Babur

The main reasons for the struggle between both the ruler were as follows:

1. Blaming on Sanga for not keeping his promise : In Babur’s autobiography “Tuzk e Babri”, which is written in the Turkish language.

Babur had written that, “Sanga sent an ambassador to me in Kabul and asked to invade Delhi, and at the same time, Sanga had promised to himself invade Agra, but he did not adhere to his promise.

When I had occupied Delhi and Agra, even after this, there were no responsive signs from the side of Sanga.”

But blaming on Sanga to inviting Babur from Kabul to come India to invade Delhi does not seem to have any logic, because earlier Sanga himself alone had defeated Ibrahim Lodi twice.

2. Clash of Ambition: Both Babur and Sanga were ambitious rulers. After achieving victory upon Ibrahim Lodi, Babur wanted to occupy the entire India.

But for this he had to defeat “Hindupat” (Hindu chief) Sanga. Both the rulers were in northern India and it was just like two swords present in a single sheath.

3. Friendly relations between Rajput and Afghan: After getting defeated in the Battle of Panipat by Babur, yet Afghans were making efforts to oust Babur from India.

The Afghan leaders found Maharana Sanga perfect for this task, so, Hasan Khan Mewati and Mahmud Lodi, the brother of Ibrahim Lodi reached to the heaven of Maharana Sanga.

The joining of Rajput and Afghans became the reason of terror for Babur. And finally, he decided to eliminate the increasing power of Sanga.

4. Conquering of the Sultanate Regions by Sanga: Sanga took the advantage of the maladministration prevailed in the Sultanate region because of the defeat of Ibrahim Lodi in the Battle of Panipat.

Sanga conquered Khandar Fort (near Ranthambore) and the nearby 200 villages, because of that the Muslim families settled there were forced to go away.

Both the rulers started to increase their military power and strengthening their respective position after realizing the possibility of struggle in future.

To increase the power of Babur, the Mughal army occupied Gwalior, Bayana and Dholpur. And on the other side, Maharana Sanga also invited various leaders.

Such as the Afghan leaders Mahmud Lodi and Hasan Khan Mewati, Maldeo of Marwar, Raja Bharmal of Idar, Prithviraj of Amer, Rawal Udai Singh of Wagad, Viramdeo Medatia.

And Rawal Ratan Singh of Salumbar, Rawat Bagh Singh of Devaliya, Medini Rai of Chanderi, Jhala Ajja of Sadari and Kunwar Kalyanmal of Bikaner reached there with their armies.

Sanga reached Bayana in February 1527 CE, at that time, Mehndi Khwaja was appointed as the fort keeper of the fort of Bayana by Babur.

Maharana Sanga surrounded the fort and because of it the Mughal army gets frightened and their condition became awful.

After getting information of this enclosure, Babur sent an army under the leadership of Mohammad Sultan Mirza, to protect the fort, but the Rajput army defeated that army which was sent by Babur

And also defeated the army, which is present in the fort and capture the fort of Bayana. Victory of Bayana was an important victory of Maharana Sanga against Babur.

Babur was busy in the preparation of war, but he was also worried as he heard about the bravery and valour of the Maharana Sanga and the Rajput army by Shah Mansoor Kismati and all other who returned from there.

At that time, Mohammad Sharif, a Muslim astrologer predicted, “The planet of Mars is in the west, so those who will fight from the east, will be defeated.”

The condition of the Mughal army was very bad and there a hopeless environment prevailed all around. Witnessing this, Babur made efforts to encourage his soldiers by taking an oath never to drink liquor again.

And he broke the precious pitchers and cups, which was used by him to drink liquor and distributed them among poor.

In order to infatuate the religious sentiments of the soldiers, he said, “Chieftains and soldiers! Every person, who comes into this world, dies definitely. When we will die, only God will remain.

Whosoever will engage in material comfort of life, he will have to die also. Whosoever enters in this worldly inn, has also to exit one day.

Therefore, it is better to die prestigiously, instead of living a disrespectable life. I also wish that it would be better if I meet a glorious death, because the body is perishable.

The Lord has blessed us a lot because if we die in this battle, we will be renowned as martyrs, and if we win, we will be called Gazi.

Therefore, every one of us should take the Holy Quran in his hand and pledge that while staying alive, no one should even think of fleeing away from the battle field.”

Along with the speech, Babur also sent a proposal of alliance to Maharana Sanga through Salhadi Tanwar, the chieftain of Raisen.

The Maharaja talked about the proposal with the chieftains, but the mediation of Salhadi was not accepted by them.

And after witnessing the strength of their army and weakness of Babur, they rejected the proposal of alliance.

Babur took the advantage of these talks and continued his war preparation in a fast way and reached the battlefield of Khanwa.

In the first, the Rajput fought with bravery and stood victorious, but suddenly a blow of an arrow injured Maharana Sanga and he was forced to leave the battlefield.

To continue the battle, the chieftains requested Rawal Ratan Singh Churawat of Salumbar to head the army. But he denied.

And said that, his ancestors had left the state of Mewar, therefore he could not assume the national symbol of the state for even a single moment.

But he would fully support whosoever assumed that national symbol and would fight against the enemy till the time he remained alive.

After this, Jhala Ajja seated on the elephant and the battle was continued. The Rajput army decided to fight till their last breath, but they could not sustain the Babur’s army and got defeated.

After standing victorious in this battle, Babur got the title of Gazi, and as the symbol of victory, he built a minaret of the heads of Rajput soldiers.

Reasons for Sanga’s defeat

1. The horse army of Babur dominated the elephant army of the Rajputs because of their momentum.

2. Sanga made a big mistake by sitting on an elephant because of which he was clearly visible to his enemy and got injured. As he went away injured from the battlefield, the moral of his army declined.

3. The coordination and the unity were very less among the Rajput army because the entire army was organised under the leadership of different chieftains.

4. Another big mistake was that the Rajput soldiers were fighting with their traditional weapons and they could not defeat Babur’s cannons with their bows and arrows.

5. According to Gaurishankar Ojha, the major reason for Sanga’s defeat was not entering into the war immediately after the victory on Bayana and giving enough time to Babur for the preparation of war.

Result of Battle of Khanwa

1. The dominion of Rajputs came to an end in India. The splendid sun of the Rajputs, which was dazzling in the sky above the people now began to setting down.

2. The Rajput organization which was formed because of the power and prestige of Mewar ended with this defeat.

3. Babur became the permanent ruler of India and the Mughal empire established in India.

After the battle of Khanwa

When the battle of Khanwa ended, injured Sanga was taken to Baswa. When he regained the sense, he became very unhappy after hearing about their defeat in the war.

When Rana was proceeding towards Chanderi to avenge his defeat from Babur, his chieftains, who were against the war gave him poison in the food.

And when the poison became effective, Sanga died at the age of 46 on 30th January 1528 CE at a place called Kalpi. According to Amarkavya Vanshavali, Sanga’s last rituals were performed in Mandalgarh.

Maharana Sanga was a very brave and glorious fighter in our history. He was also a grateful and imperialistic ruler.

It is said that at the time of his death, there were 80 bruises of blows of swords and spears were present in his body. But even after being a brave and capable ruler, he cannot be called a skilled politician.

Because, releasing an enemy after imprison is a very grateful act with point of view of kindness, but it is not good in political point of view.


Ramesh Sharma {M Pharm, MSc (Computer Science), PGDCA, MA (History), CHMS}

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