Story of Rawal Ratan Singh - Invasion of Alauddin Khilji upon Chittor

Story of Rawal Ratan Singh - Invasion of Alauddin Khilji upon Chittor, it tells about the life history of Rawat Ratan Singh husband of Rani Padmini.

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Rawal Ratan Singh was born in 1273 CE at Mewar as the child of the ruler of Mewar, Rawal Samar Singh.

After the death of his (Ratan Singh’s) father Rawal Samar Singh, Ratan Singh ascended the throne and became the ruler of Mewar in 1302 CE.

Rawal Ratan Singh got opportunity to rule upon Chittor for only one year and the year was very famous because of the invasion of Alauddin Khilji upon Chittor.

Objectives of Alauddin Khilji to invade upon Chittor

The main objectives of Alauddin to invade upon Chittor were:

1. Imperialistic Ambition of Alauddin Khilji: Alauddin was an imperialistic and an ambitious ruler. He wished to conquer the whole world just like Alexander.

And because of that he got the title “Sikander Sani”. In order to make the conquest of South India and his occupancy on North India permanently, to attack upon Rajput kingdoms were important for him.

And in invasion upon Chittor was part of the same policy.

2. Military and Geographical importance of Chittor: The major road which started from Delhi to Malwa, Gujarat and Southern India, passes from near Chittor.

Because of this reason, it was essential for Alauddin to occupy Chittor to maintain control upon Malwa, Gujarat and Southern India.

The Chittorgarh fort was built by Chitrangad, who was a Maurya ruler. And the fort remained unconquerable and no Muslim invader had been successful in occupying it till this time.This was also a great challenge for Alauddin Khilji.

3. Alauddin’s immense wish to occupy Padmini: According to some historians, Alauddin wished to occupy Padmini, the wife of the Mewar ruler Rawal Ratan Singh.

He sent a message to Rawal Ratan Singh, that if he wanted to save himself from a severe annihilation, he should send Padmini in the Royal Harem.

Rawal Ratan Singh rejected that proposal, this made Alauddin Khilji angry at him (Ratan Singh) and he invaded upon Chittor.

4. The increasing power of Mewar: During the rule of powerful and strong kings such as Tej Singh, Samar Singh and Jaitra Singh, the boundaries of Chittor was continuously expanding.

Many Sultans such as Iltutmish, Nasiruddin Mahmud and Balban made efforts to decline this ever-increasing power, but they remained unsuccessful.

In 1299 CE, Rawal Samar Singh of Mewar had denied to provide assistance to the royal army and allowed them to proceed ahead after collecting fine from the army.

Invasion of Alauddin Khilji upon Chittor

On 28th January 1303 CE, Alauddin Khilji proceeded from Delhi along with the royal army and surrounded Chittor.

Ratan Singh gave a violent answer to Alauddin and the royal army, because of that, even after two consecutive months the royal army could not achieve success.

In those conditions, the Sultan was forced to change his strategy. The Sultan built tall platforms near the walls of the fort and installed “Manjanakas” (harpoons) on them.

The walls of the fort were stoned heavily and got no effect by those harpoons. The fort was fenced by the royal army for a long period of time, and the food presented in the fort started to decline.

Because of these conditions, there was not any other way than battle. The Rajput soldiers opened the gate of the fort and started to fight against the Muslim army.

During the violent struggle between both the armies, Rawal Ratan Singh received martyrdom and on the other hand, the first Jauhar of Chittor was performed under the leadership of Padmini.

And in this way Alauddin Khilji occupied Chittor on 26th August 1303 CE. The next day after occupying Chittor, the Sultan ordered his army for mass killing of the residents of Chittor.

Amir Khusrau who was present there during the campaign wrote about the campaign in his book “Khazain ul Futuh” that in a single day around 30000 helpless people were put to death.

Afterwards Alauddin Khilji changed the name of Chittor to “Khizrabad” and ascend his son Khizr Khan there and handed over the administration of Khizrabad to him and returned back to Delhi.

Then Khizr Khan built a bridge on river Gambhiri. He also had built a tomb in the foothill of Chittor, on which a Persian inscription was installed that states Alauddin as the blessings of God and the protector of the world.


Ramesh Sharma {M Pharm, MSc (Computer Science), PGDCA, MA (History), CHMS}

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